Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally-occurring
phospholipid nutrient that has been shown to improve cognitive functions and
enhance mental ability. PS is essential to the healthy functioning of the human
brain where it affects an assortment of nerve cell functions, including:
conduction of nerve impulses; accumulation, storage and release of
neurotransmitters; the activity and number of receptors involved in synaptic
discharge; and the biological maintenance of cellular "housekeeping"
Phosphatidylserine improves Concentration and Short Term Memory.
Phosphatidylserine effectively alleviates Depression - especially in elderly.
Phosphatidylserine increases brain Alpha Waves by 15-20%.
Phosphatidylserine helps stabilize Brain Wave patterns in Epileptics.
Phosphatidylserine increases Intelligence.
Phosphatidylserine prevents the decline in Learning capacity that occurs with age.
Phosphatidylserine prevents the decline in the number of brain dendrites that occurs with age.
Phosphatidylserine improves Mood (especially in elderly persons.)
Phosphatidylserine is involved in Myelin Sheath repair.
Phosphatidylserine increases the number of neurotransmitter receptor sites.
Phosphatidylserine stimulates release of the brain neurotransmitter Dopamine.
Phosphatidylserine improves Reflexes [as judged by flicker-fusion response time].
Phosphatidylserine counteracts Cortisol that rises during intensive exercise and during stress.
Phosphatidylserine enhances the function of Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).
Phosphatidylserine increases production of the brain neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Phosphatidylserine enhances brain glucose metabolism.
of the diet with PS has been proven to slow, halt, or in many cases, even
reverse cognitive degeneration due to Age-Related Cognitive Decline (ARCD), and
dementing illnesses like Alzheimer's disease. PS has been scientifically
established to be among the most effective substances to consistently result in
dramatic cognitive improvements and enhancements of other higher brain
is extremely bioavailable and crosses the blood-brain barrier with ease. Once in
the brain, the PS molecule as a unit merges smoothly into the nerve cell
membrane where it is available to facilitate cell-level energy and homeostasis,
as well as enhance neurotransmitter production, release, and action. PS also
serves as a precursor reservoir for the related phospholipids,
phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine.
from many controlled clinical trials indicate that PS consistently ameliorates
memory loss and other cognitive decline related to aging. In 14
double-blind clinical trials, conducted with subjects aged 50 and older, PS
benefited all degrees of cognitive impairment. In one US trial by Crook, et al
(1991) on subjects with age-related cognitive decline (ARCD), PS reversed
the decline of name-face acquisition skills by a statistical 12 years; i.e.,
from average scores attained by 64-year-old subjects to average scores attained
by 52-year-olds. As the investigators noted, it's as if they had "rolled
back the clock" measuring "cognitive biological age" by roughly
12 years, in terms of overall cognitive status.
double-blind trials conducted with more severely afflicted subjects, PS brought
about statistically and clinically significant improvements in measures of
recall, learning, concentration, adaptability, mood and sociability. In other
double-blind trials, PS improved neuro-physiological measures such as EEG
(electroencephalogram) and reflexes (as judged by flicker-fusion response time).
another human trial conducted with young male volunteers, PS significantly
improved EEG alpha rhythm (which often declines with aging and memory loss). In
older subjects with severe cognitive impairment, PS dramatically enhanced brain
glucose consumption (assessed via positron emission tomographic [PET] imaging)
and partially restored the 24-hour rhythm of TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
secretion in aged men. Also, in elderly subjects, PS enhanced the
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress-coping axis, as assessed by the
dexamethasone suppression test.
Crook, T. H., et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment. Neurology. 41(5):644-649, 1991.
Villardita, C., et al. Multicentre clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly subjects with mental deterioration. Clinical Trials Journal. 24:84-93, 1987.
Crook, T., et al. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's. Psychopharmacol Bull. 28:61-66, 1992
Fungfield, E. W., et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidlyserine (PS) in Parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res. 317:1235-1246, 1989.
Amaducci, L. Phosphatidylserine in the dosing of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study. Psychopharmacology Bulletin. 24:130-134, 1988.
Fungfield, E. W., et al. Double-blind study with phosphatidlyserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT). Prog Clin Biol Res. 317:1235-1246, 1989.
Delwaide, P. J., et al. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scandinavia. 73:136-140, 1986.
Amaducci, L., et al. Use of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (USA). 640:245-249, 1991.
Engel, R. R., et al. Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2:149-155, 1992.
Palmieri, G., et al. Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration. Clinical Trials Journal (UK). 24(1):73-83, 1987
Gindin, J, et al. The Effect of plant phosphatidylserine on age-associated memory impairment and mood in the functioning elderly. Geriatric Institute for Education and Research, and Department of Geriatrics, Kaplan Hospital, Rehovot, Israel. 1995.